Article Index

Introduction

Anime, style of animation popular in Japanese films. Early anime films were intended primarily for the Japanese market and, as such, employed many cultural references unique to Japan. For example, the large eyes of anime characters are commonly perceived in Japan as multifaceted “windows to the soul.

Modern anime began in 1956 and found lasting success in 1961. At the turn of the 21st century, anime began to attain wide international popularity with the Pokémon television series and films such as Miyazaki’s Spirited Away (2002), winner of an Academy Award for best animated feature film.

'Anime', 2018 Britannica School

The manga style, with all the term’s connotations of the whimsical and risqué, can be considered to have originated with ukiyo-e prints of Hokusai in 1814. It reflects a long tradition in humorous art. In Japan 2002 there were 278 different manga magazines.  

By 2008 the market for manga magazines was clearly in decline. Still, comic books are a major cultural force in Japan, a fact of life. In translation and in the original, they have penetrated the American market ($110 million per year), where there is a considerable cult following; they have also inspired many film animations.

'Comic strip', 2018 Britannica School