The 1840s was a time of experimentation, with a shift towards controlling prisoners with psychological rather than physical pressures. Many humiliating punishments, were stopped, and the last was used less often. The Model Prison was completed at Port Arthur in 1852 and its primary aim was instruction and probation rather than oppressive punishment. Prisoners' crimes were now seen as offenses not just against society but against God. Thus, the Church and its chaplain were central to the Port Arthur system.
Clayton, Mark, 199?, Port Arthur: a penal history, Launceston, Regal Publications
- The pathfinder on penal colonies in Australia contains additional information on Port Arthur
Port Arthur was structured like the Pentonville Prison in London.